Since 1974 a creative and efficient global niche player in the field of medical publishing

The History of Ophthalmology - The Monographs volume 4 - part 1

Ophthalmology of the Ancients (1)

written by: H. Magnus
translated by: R.L. Waugh Jr.

Set Price: € 320.00 / US $ 416.00(sold as set only!)

Add to cart Google Play

Publication details: Book. 1998. xxii and 255 pages. Publication date: 1998.

ISBN: 978-90-6299-451-9 (ISBN 10: 90-6299-451-2; Wayenborgh Publishing)
Additional publication(s) within this set:
History of Ophthalmology - The Monographs series volume(s) 4 - part 2 This publication is part of the History of Ophthalmology - The Monographs series
Also available as ebook

Table of Contents

First Section. Egyptian ophthalmology

The earliest source of old Egyptian ophthalmology,
The clinical value of Papyrus Ebers,
The eye diseases represented in Papyrus Ebers,

Chapter 1. Ocular therapy in Papyrus Ebers
Forms of application of measures used for the eyes,

Eye wash



Production and use of old Egyptian remedies,
Old Egyptian eye remedies,




Eye make-up by the Egyptians,
Use of artificial eyes by the Egyptians,

Mention of artificial eyes in the Talmud
Surgical ocular therapy,
Characteristic old Egyptian ophthalmology,

Relationship of the heart to the eye

Relationship of Egyptian to Greek ophthalmology

Second Section. Jewish ophthalmology

Chapter Il. Biblical ophthalmology

Significance of the eye in Jewish antiquity,

Blindness in Jewish antiquity .

Priests and the eye
Ophthalmic anatomic knowledge in the Bible,
Eye diseases known in the Bible,

Eyes of Moses

Dryness in old age

The root word kahâh

The root word kûm

Explanation of the word Staar

The ailment of Ahijah
Treatment of sick eyes in the Bible,

Chapter III. Talmudic ophthalmology
The common characteristics of Talmudic ophthalmology,
The anatomy and physiology of the eye in the Talmud,
The eye diseases of the Talmud,

Forms of eye disease

Symptoms of eye disease

Corneal diseases

Conjunctival diseases

Iris diseases

Lid diseases


Muscle disorders

Abnormalities of the eyeball

Abnormalities of vision

Malignant neoplasms

Ritual significance of eye diseases
The manner of the beginning of eye diseases,
Ophthalmic therapy,

Use of artificial eyes

Third Section. Indian ophthalmology

Indian ophthalmic anatomy,

The cornea is a kind of fat
Indian ophthalmic pathology,
Special knowledge of individual eye diseases,
Indian therapy,

The Indian Staar operation

Reference points for the time when Susruta may have completed his work

Fourth Section. Greek and Roman ophthalmology
Periods in the development of Greek and Roman ophthalmology,

First Period. Greek ophthalmology from the earliest beginning

up to the time of Thales of Melitus about 600 B.C. and the

appearance of nature philosophy

The first beginning of ophthalmology,

Consumption of eye of keen sighted animals for eye disorders

The goat as the discoverer of certain eye operations

The relationship of the gods to ophthalmology

The eye disorders of Diomedes and Lycurgus

Temple sleep

Inscriptions on votive tablets

Coan Prognoses

Second Period. Greek ophthalmology from the appearance of Greek nature
philosophy up to the beginning of the Alexandrian school


Chapter IV. The anatomy of the eye in the pre-Alexandrian era
General characteristics of ophthalmic anatomy in the pre-Alexandrian


Speculative anatomy

Empiric anatomy

Comparative anatomy
Orbital cavity,

Shape of the eyeball

Size and position of the eyeball
Skins of the eyeball,

The sclera is flesh

View of Aristotle about the sclera
Corneo-scleral fold,

False meaning of a word by Hirschberg
Choroid and iris,

Name of the iris

Color of the iris

The iris of the newborn
Contents of the eyeball,
Aqueous humor,

Did Aristotle know the aqueous humor?

Did Hippocrates know the lens?
Vitreous body,
Optic nerve,

Alcmaeon and the discovery of the optic nerve

Aristotle and the chiasm
Tear organs,
Extraocular muscles,
Developmental history of the eye,

Chapter V. Ophthalmic physiology in the pre-Alexandrian era
General characteristics; relation to philosophy,

Optical explanations of the nature philosophers were mostly speculative

Teaching of the atomists, Democritus and Lucretius

Teaching of Epicurus

Notion of Empedocles

Philosophy and practical medicine
Explanation of the nature of light and the organ of sight,
Diogenes of Apollonia,
The Pathagoreans,
The Atomists,
The Hippocratics,


Development of vision

Nature of light

Representation of the act of seeing
Aristotle and the nature of light,

Role of the eyes in vision
The Stoics,

Darkness is a physical reality
The Skeptics,
Keen eyesight,

Keen eyesight according to Aristotle
The field of vision,
Movements of the eyes,
Theories of color,

View of the Pathagoreans

View of Empedocles

View of Democritus

Development of the color sense

View of Plato

View of Aristotle

Chapter VI. Ophthalmic pathology in the pre-Alexandrian era
General ophthalmic pathology,

Influence of temperature

Position of glands in pathology

Significance of the brain

Factors in eye disease
Special ophthalmic pathology,

Development of a diagnosis

The four basic factors for a diagnosis

Diagnosis in the pre-Alexandrian era
The pre-Alexandrian system of eye disorders,
Diseases of the tear organs,
Corneal spots,
Position and movement anomalies of the eyeball,


Changes in the pupillary region,

Color of the pupil

Different pupillary colorations and their clinical significance

False concept of Schön regarding Staar

Size and form relations of the pupil
Diseases of the lids,
Disturbances of vision,
Weak vision,

Relations between the brain and the eye

Weak sight through wounds of the forehead
Accommodative anomalies,

Refraction anomalies,

Fukula falsely explains the lxlùelv of the Hippocratics

Near-sightedness and Aristotle
Subjective-optical manifestations,
Anomalies of the visual fields,
Wounds of the eye,

Chapter VII. The therapy of pre-Alexandrian ophthalmology
General characteristics,
Local treatment with medications,

Preparation of eye remedies

The medicinal treasury of pre-Alexandrian ophthalmology

Aristotle's statement regarding the onion

Hippocratic recipes
Indirect medicinal treatment of diseased eyes,

Drainage through gums, nose, and intestinal tract

General character of ophthalmic surgery,
Operation for suppuration,
Surgical treatment of prolapsed iris,
Surgical treatment of corneal spots,
Lid surgery,
Removal of mucous membrane,
Abrasion of the inner lid surface,
Burning of the inner lid surface,
Operations for entropion,
Treatment before and after eye operations,

Wound treatment by the Hippocratics

Did the Hippocratics know antisepsis?
Indirect ophthalmic surgery,
Cutting open the scalp,
Burning of very different body sites,
The cupping glass,
Physical ophthalmotherapy,
Regulation of light conditions,
Use of stenopaic apparatus,
Therapeutic use of optically polished glass,

Chapter VIII. The eye practitioner's position in the pre-Alexandrian

Did the eye practitioner exist in the Hippocratic era?

Requirements of the practitioner by the Hippocratics

Demands placed on the surgeon

Third Period. Ophthalmology from the beginning of the Alexandrian era
until the appearance of Galen

General characteristics,

Chapter IX. The anatomy of the eye in the era from the appearance of

Alexandrian school to the appearance of Galen
General characteristics,

Shape, size, and position of the eyeball,

Derivation of the word oculus

Orbital cavity
The tunics of the eyeball,

Meaning of the word squama
Choroid and iris,

Colors of the iris


Why is the pupil black?
Corneo-scleral fold and ciliary body,
Lens capsule,
The interior of the eyeball,
Anterior and posterior charnbers,
Aqueous humor,
Vitreous body,
Optic nerve,

Relationship of the optic nerves to inner organs
Extraocular musculature,
Lacrimal apparatus,
Vessels of the eyeball,
Ocular developmental events,

Chapter X. The physiology of the eye in the era from the appearance
of the Alexandrian school to the appearance of Galen
General characteristics,
The act of seeing and the theory of light from the Alexandrian era until
the appearance of Galen,

Ancient theories of light

Relationship of philosophy to optics
Euclid's activity,

The eight optical principles of Euclid

Euclid's proof why an object can never be completely surveyed at the
same time

Why an object at a certain distance can no longer be recognized
Views of Hipparchus about the act of seeing,
Hero [Heron],

The optical nomenclature of Cleomedes
The notion of visual acuity,

Euclid's attempt to explain the factors of visual acuity

Visual acuity is situated in the soul

Visual acuity is situated in the lens
The visual field,
Functions of the extraocular muscles,
The theory of colors,

Chapter XI. The pathology of the eye in the era from the appearance
of the Alexandrian school to the appearance of Galen
General characteristics,

Anatomy and humorism
Special ophthalmic pathology,
Classification of eye diseases according to Celsus,

Diseases of the eyelids,
Diseases of the conjunctiva,
Diseases in the region of the lacrimal caruncle,
New growths of the conjunctiva,
Diseases of the comea,
Corneal ulcers,
Corneal spots,
Diseases of the iris,

Relationship to suffusio
Position and movement anomalies of the eyeball,
Paralysis of the extraocular muscles,
Spasms of the extraocular muscles,
Diseases of the tear organs,
Changes in the entire eyeball,
Atrophy of the eyeball,
The doctrine of the grey Staar in the era beginning with the Alexandrians,

Disturbances of vision,
Diseases of the optic nerve in the Alexandrian era,
Sympathetic ophthalmia,
Anomalies of accommodation,
Over-exertion of accommodation,
Paralysis of accommodation,
Senile inefficiency of accommodation,
Anomalies of refraction,
Injuries of the eyes,

Chapter XII. Therapy of the eye in the era from the appearance of the
Alexandrians to the appearance of Galen
General characteristics,
Local medicinal treatment of the eye,

The ancient ocular pharmacopoeia
Ophthalmic remedies originating from the animal kingdom,
Ophthalmic remedies taken from the human body,
Ophthalmic remedies from the class of mammals,
Ophthalmic remedies from the class of birds,
Ophthalmic remedies from the class of amphibians,
Ophthalmic remedies from the class of fishes,
Ophthalmic remedies from the class of insects and spiders,
Ophthalmic remedies from the class of crustaceans, worms, molluscs,
coral, and sponges,
Ophthalmic remedies from the plant kingdom,
Ophthalmic remedies from the mineral kingdom,

Kugler Publications
Postal address:
P.O. Box 20538
1001 NM Amsterdam
The Netherlands
Tel: +31 20 68 45 700