Kugler
Publications

Since 1974 a creative and efficient global niche player in the field of medical publishing




The History of Ophthalmology - The Monographs volume 4 - part 1

Ophthalmology of the Ancients (1)


written by: H. Magnus
translated by: R.L. Waugh Jr.

Set Price: € 320.00 / US $ 416.00(sold as set only!)

Add to cart Google Play


Publication details: Book. 1998. xxii and 255 pages. Publication date: 1998.

ISBN: 978-90-6299-451-9 (ISBN 10: 90-6299-451-2; Wayenborgh Publishing)
Additional publication(s) within this set:
History of Ophthalmology - The Monographs series volume(s) 4 - part 2 This publication is part of the History of Ophthalmology - The Monographs series
Also available as ebook

Table of Contents

First Section. Egyptian ophthalmology

Bibliography
§1
The earliest source of old Egyptian ophthalmology,
§2
The clinical value of Papyrus Ebers,
§3
The eye diseases represented in Papyrus Ebers,

Chapter 1. Ocular therapy in Papyrus Ebers
§4
Forms of application of measures used for the eyes,

Eye wash

Salves

Compresses

Powder
§5
Production and use of old Egyptian remedies,
§6
Old Egyptian eye remedies,

Bile

Urine

Spittle

Milk
§7
Eye make-up by the Egyptians,
§8
Use of artificial eyes by the Egyptians,

Mention of artificial eyes in the Talmud
§9
Surgical ocular therapy,
§10
Characteristic old Egyptian ophthalmology,

Relationship of the heart to the eye

Relationship of Egyptian to Greek ophthalmology

Second Section. Jewish ophthalmology

Chapter Il. Biblical ophthalmology

Bibliography
§11
Significance of the eye in Jewish antiquity,

Blindness in Jewish antiquity .

Priests and the eye
§12
Ophthalmic anatomic knowledge in the Bible,
§13
Eye diseases known in the Bible,

Eyes of Moses

Dryness in old age

The root word kahâh

The root word kûm

Explanation of the word Staar

The ailment of Ahijah
§14
Treatment of sick eyes in the Bible,

Chapter III. Talmudic ophthalmology
§15
The common characteristics of Talmudic ophthalmology,
§16
The anatomy and physiology of the eye in the Talmud,
§17
The eye diseases of the Talmud,

Forms of eye disease

Symptoms of eye disease

Corneal diseases

Conjunctival diseases

Iris diseases

Lid diseases

Staar

Muscle disorders

Abnormalities of the eyeball

Abnormalities of vision

Malignant neoplasms

Ritual significance of eye diseases
§18
The manner of the beginning of eye diseases,
§19
Ophthalmic therapy,

Use of artificial eyes

Third Section. Indian ophthalmology

Bibliography
§20
Indian ophthalmic anatomy,

The cornea is a kind of fat
§21
Indian ophthalmic pathology,
§22
Special knowledge of individual eye diseases,
§23
Indian therapy,

The Indian Staar operation

Reference points for the time when Susruta may have completed his work

Fourth Section. Greek and Roman ophthalmology
§24
Periods in the development of Greek and Roman ophthalmology,

First Period. Greek ophthalmology from the earliest beginning

up to the time of Thales of Melitus about 600 B.C. and the

appearance of nature philosophy

Bibliography
§25
The first beginning of ophthalmology,

Consumption of eye of keen sighted animals for eye disorders

The goat as the discoverer of certain eye operations

The relationship of the gods to ophthalmology

The eye disorders of Diomedes and Lycurgus

Temple sleep

Inscriptions on votive tablets

Coan Prognoses

Second Period. Greek ophthalmology from the appearance of Greek nature
philosophy up to the beginning of the Alexandrian school

Bibliography

Chapter IV. The anatomy of the eye in the pre-Alexandrian era
§26
General characteristics of ophthalmic anatomy in the pre-Alexandrian
era,

Alcmaeon

Speculative anatomy

Empiric anatomy

Comparative anatomy
§27
Orbital cavity,
§28
Eyebrows,
§29
Eyelids,
§30
Conjunctiva,
§31
Eyeball,

Shape of the eyeball

Size and position of the eyeball
§32
Skins of the eyeball,
§33
Sclera,

The sclera is flesh

View of Aristotle about the sclera
§34
Cornea,
§35
Corneo-scleral fold,

False meaning of a word by Hirschberg
§36
Choroid and iris,

Name of the iris

Color of the iris

The iris of the newborn
§37
Pupil,
§38
Retina,
§39
Contents of the eyeball,
§40
Aqueous humor,

Did Aristotle know the aqueous humor?
§41
Lens,

Did Hippocrates know the lens?
§42
Vitreous body,
§43
Optic nerve,

Alcmaeon and the discovery of the optic nerve

Aristotle and the chiasm
§44
Tear organs,
§45
Extraocular muscles,
§46
Developmental history of the eye,

Chapter V. Ophthalmic physiology in the pre-Alexandrian era
§47
General characteristics; relation to philosophy,

Optical explanations of the nature philosophers were mostly speculative

Teaching of the atomists, Democritus and Lucretius

Teaching of Epicurus

Notion of Empedocles

Philosophy and practical medicine
§48
Explanation of the nature of light and the organ of sight,
§49
Diogenes of Apollonia,
§50
The Pathagoreans,
§51
Anaxagoras,
§52
Empedocles,
§53
The Atomists,
§54
The Hippocratics,
§55
Epicurus,

Mirror-images

Development of vision

Nature of light
§56
Plato,

Representation of the act of seeing
§57
Aristotle and the nature of light,

Role of the eyes in vision
§58
The Stoics,

Darkness is a physical reality
§59
The Skeptics,
§60
Keen eyesight,

Keen eyesight according to Aristotle
§61
The field of vision,
§62
Accommodation,
§63
Movements of the eyes,
§64
Theories of color,

View of the Pathagoreans

View of Empedocles

View of Democritus

Development of the color sense

View of Plato

View of Aristotle

Chapter VI. Ophthalmic pathology in the pre-Alexandrian era
§65
General ophthalmic pathology,

Influence of temperature

Position of glands in pathology

Significance of the brain

Factors in eye disease
§66
Special ophthalmic pathology,
§67
Diagnostic,

Development of a diagnosis

The four basic factors for a diagnosis

Diagnosis in the pre-Alexandrian era
§68
The pre-Alexandrian system of eye disorders,
§69
Ophthalmia,
§70
Diseases of the tear organs,
§71
Corneal spots,
§72
Position and movement anomalies of the eyeball,

Nystagmus

Hippus
§73
Changes in the pupillary region,

Color of the pupil

Different pupillary colorations and their clinical significance

False concept of Schön regarding Staar

Size and form relations of the pupil
§74
Diseases of the lids,
§75
Disturbances of vision,
§76
Weak vision,

Relations between the brain and the eye

Weak sight through wounds of the forehead
§77
Accommodative anomalies,

Presbyopia
§78
Refraction anomalies,

Fukula falsely explains the lxlùelv of the Hippocratics

Near-sightedness and Aristotle
§79
Subjective-optical manifestations,
§80
Anomalies of the visual fields,
§81
Diplopja,
§82
Nyctalopia,
§83
Wounds of the eye,

Chapter VII. The therapy of pre-Alexandrian ophthalmology
§84
General characteristics,
§85
Local treatment with medications,

Preparation of eye remedies

The medicinal treasury of pre-Alexandrian ophthalmology

Aristotle's statement regarding the onion

Hippocratic recipes
§86
Indirect medicinal treatment of diseased eyes,

Drainage through gums, nose, and intestinal tract

Clysters
§87
General character of ophthalmic surgery,
§88
Operation for suppuration,
§89
Surgical treatment of prolapsed iris,
§90
Surgical treatment of corneal spots,
§91
Pterygium,
§92
Lid surgery,
§93
Removal of mucous membrane,
§94
Abrasion of the inner lid surface,
§95
Burning of the inner lid surface,
§96
Operations for entropion,
§97
Treatment before and after eye operations,

Wound treatment by the Hippocratics

Did the Hippocratics know antisepsis?
§98
Indirect ophthalmic surgery,
§99
Cutting open the scalp,
§100
Burning of very different body sites,
§101
Trepanation,
§102
Bloodletting,
§103
The cupping glass,
§104
Physical ophthalmotherapy,
§105
Regulation of light conditions,
§106
Use of stenopaic apparatus,
§107
Therapeutic use of optically polished glass,

Chapter VIII. The eye practitioner's position in the pre-Alexandrian
era

Did the eye practitioner exist in the Hippocratic era?

Requirements of the practitioner by the Hippocratics

Demands placed on the surgeon

Third Period. Ophthalmology from the beginning of the Alexandrian era
until the appearance of Galen

Bibliography
§108
General characteristics,

Chapter IX. The anatomy of the eye in the era from the appearance of
the

Alexandrian school to the appearance of Galen
§109
General characteristics,
§110
Eyebrows,
§111
Eyelids,

Eyelashes
§112
Shape, size, and position of the eyeball,

Derivation of the word oculus

Orbital cavity
§113
The tunics of the eyeball,
§114
Conjunctiva,
§115
Sclera,
§116
Cornea,

Meaning of the word squama
§117
Choroid and iris,

Colors of the iris

Pupil

Why is the pupil black?
§118
Corneo-scleral fold and ciliary body,
§119
Retina,
§120
Lens capsule,
§121
The interior of the eyeball,
§122
Anterior and posterior charnbers,
§123
Aqueous humor,
§124
Lens,
§125
Vitreous body,
§126
Optic nerve,

Relationship of the optic nerves to inner organs
§127
Extraocular musculature,
§128
Lacrimal apparatus,
§129
Vessels of the eyeball,
§130
Ocular developmental events,

Chapter X. The physiology of the eye in the era from the appearance
of the Alexandrian school to the appearance of Galen
§131
General characteristics,
§132
The act of seeing and the theory of light from the Alexandrian era until
the appearance of Galen,

Ancient theories of light

Relationship of philosophy to optics
§133
Euclid's activity,

The eight optical principles of Euclid

Euclid's proof why an object can never be completely surveyed at the
same time

Why an object at a certain distance can no longer be recognized
§134
Views of Hipparchus about the act of seeing,
§135
Lucretius,
§136
Hero [Heron],
§137
Cleomedes,

The optical nomenclature of Cleomedes
§138
Plutarch,
§139
The notion of visual acuity,

Euclid's attempt to explain the factors of visual acuity

Visual acuity is situated in the soul

Visual acuity is situated in the lens
§140
Accommodation,
§141
The visual field,
§142
Functions of the extraocular muscles,
§143
The theory of colors,

Chapter XI. The pathology of the eye in the era from the appearance
of the Alexandrian school to the appearance of Galen
§144
General characteristics,

Anatomy and humorism
§145
Special ophthalmic pathology,
§146
Classification of eye diseases according to Celsus,
§147
Lippitudo,

Epiphora
§148
Diseases of the eyelids,
§149
Diseases of the conjunctiva,
§150
Pterygium,
§151
Diseases in the region of the lacrimal caruncle,
§152
New growths of the conjunctiva,
§153
Diseases of the comea,
§154
Corneal ulcers,
§155
Corneal spots,
§156
Diseases of the iris,

Relationship to suffusio
§157
Position and movement anomalies of the eyeball,
§158
Squint,
§159
Paralysis of the extraocular muscles,
§160
Nystagmus,
§161
Spasms of the extraocular muscles,
§162
Diseases of the tear organs,
§163
Changes in the entire eyeball,
§164
Panophthalmitis,
§165
Atrophy of the eyeball,
§166
The doctrine of the grey Staar in the era beginning with the Alexandrians,

§175
Disturbances of vision,
§176
Diseases of the optic nerve in the Alexandrian era,
§177
Sympathetic ophthalmia,
§178
Anomalies of accommodation,
§179
Over-exertion of accommodation,
§180
Paralysis of accommodation,
§181
Senile inefficiency of accommodation,
§182
Anomalies of refraction,
§183
Near-sightedness,
§184
Far-sightedness,
§185
Injuries of the eyes,

Chapter XII. Therapy of the eye in the era from the appearance of the
Alexandrians to the appearance of Galen
§186
General characteristics,
§187
Local medicinal treatment of the eye,

The ancient ocular pharmacopoeia
§188
Ophthalmic remedies originating from the animal kingdom,
§189
Ophthalmic remedies taken from the human body,
§190
Ophthalmic remedies from the class of mammals,
§191
Ophthalmic remedies from the class of birds,
§192
Ophthalmic remedies from the class of amphibians,
§193
Ophthalmic remedies from the class of fishes,
§194
Ophthalmic remedies from the class of insects and spiders,
§195
Ophthalmic remedies from the class of crustaceans, worms, molluscs,
coral, and sponges,
§196
Ophthalmic remedies from the plant kingdom,
§197
Ophthalmic remedies from the mineral kingdom,

Kugler Publications
Postal address:
P.O. Box 20538
1001 NM Amsterdam
The Netherlands
Tel: +31 20 68 45 700
info@kuglerpublications.com