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New Horizons in Facial Nerve Research and Facial Expression

edited by: N. Yanagihara & S. Murakami

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Publication details: Book. 1998. x and 610 pages. Publication date: 1998-11-25. 190 figures and 111 tables. Hardbound.

ISBN: 978-90-6299-166-2 (ISBN 10: 90-6299-166-1; Kugler Publications)



In the modern world, human communication largely depends upon visual imaging technologies. Therefore, in our social activities, a healthy human facial expression with a happy smile is becoming more and more important. Disturbance of emotional and expressive facial movements seriously jeopardizes mental health, causes severe stress, and disturbs the quality of life. This is why we have organized the International Symposium once every four to six years since 1964, so that we can discuss the problems related to a single nerve, the facial nerve, which, only in human beings, has highly evolved complex and emotional functions.
The VIIIth International Symposium on the Facial Nerve was held at the Ehime Prefectural Conventional Hall, Matsuyama City, Ehime, Japan, from April 13th to 18th, 1997. We were very pleased to welcome over 400 participants from 22 countries. These numbers must certainly reflect the importance, interest 'and enthusiasm afforded to the facial nerve world-wide. As President of the Symposium, I would like to thank all the participants for their active participation and contribution. On behalf of the Organizing Committee, I would also like to express our thanks for the continuing help and support of the International Steering Committee and the Facial Nerve Research Group of Japan, which has made it possible for us to organize and hold such a splendid and informative scientific meeting. The scientific program of the VIIIth International Symposium on the Facial Nerve included six special lectures, five symposia, a panel, an international discussion, and 28 sessions, all of which reached a very high standard and were chaired by highly respected world leaders in this special field of modern medicine. The program covered all the fields related to the facial nerve: basic neuroscience, neurological medicine and surgery. Representative investigators from specialties related to the facial nerve problem, such as otolaryngology head and neck surgery, neurosurgery, neurological medicine, plastic reconstructive surgery, and rehabilitation, presented not only new knowledge but also instructive and educational papers and videos. It gives us great pleasure to present these Proceedings, which include representative and selected papers from the Symposium and provide you with the most up-to-date information on the problems of the facial nerve. As you can see from this volume, progress in cellular biology, computer technology, and skull base and rehabilitative surgery, have promoted renewed interest in both basic and clinical research on the facial nerve over the past several years. Multidisciplinary research is gaining more and more importance world-wide. In order to expand development and progress in this field, international consensus is certainly desirable on such controversial issues as a grading system for facial palsy and the treatment of Bell's palsy. We gave special consideration to ensuring ample time for the discussion of these controversial issues. The Symposium was indeed exciting and encouraging, and supplied new practical as well as scientific knowledge to all the participants. This volume includes important achievements which were fervently discussed at the Symposium. The contents certainly establish a firm base for future meetings, leading us together into the 21st century.

The next Symposium will be held in the USA in 2001

Naoaki Yanagihara

Table of Contents

Table of Contents


History of the international Symposium on the Facial Nerve

History of the International Symposium on the Facial Nerve
N. Yanagihara

Glial cell activation in the facial nucleus as a response to nerve lesion
G. W. Kreutzberg and M.B. Graeber

Extracellular fluid pathway from the facial nerve to other cranial ganglia
Y. Nakao, T. Tabuchi, N. Sakihama, K Matumoto and T. Kobayashi

Vascular supply of the facial nerve in stylomastoid fossa
A. Kukwa, P. Checinski, E. Czarnecka and R. Krajewski

Observation of the intrinsic vascular network of the facial nerve in the fallopian canal - A rat animal model
F. Satomi. D. Mohri, M. Node and M. Sakagami

The charge barrier of the facial nerve
M. Yagi, A. Ishii and M. Akita

Two transport Na-K ATPase reactivity in the facial nerve - A cytochemical study on reserpinized guinea pigs
N. Kanoh

Role of nitric oxide in facial nerve damage
O. Michel, A. Hess, W. Bloch and E. Stennert

Effects of a-isoproterenol on denervated orbicularis oculi muscles
K. Ishii, W.-G. Zhai, M. Akita, N. Takeuchi and M. Yagi

Effects of ccrvical sympathetic activity on the tissue blood flow in the facial nerve
K. Murakawa, K. Noma, M. Matsuda, S. Maeda, Y. Yoshimura, C. Tashiro, R. lzumi, F'. Satomi and H. Ogasawara

Immunohistochemical study of the temporal bones of patients with facial palsy
T. Fujii, Y. Iino, S. Okura, S. Koyama and Y Nakamoto

Experimental study of the facial nerve

Effects of immune transfer on facial nerve paralysis induced by herpes simplex virus infection in mice
N. Hato, N. Honda, S. Murakami and N. Yanagihara

Changes in gene expression in facial nerve nuclei in the rat model of ischemic Bell's palsy
D. Mohri, F. Satomi, M. Node, K. Noguchi and M. Sakagami

The effect of laser thermal conduction on neural activity
B.A. Esses, J. M. Kartush, K. R. Bouchard and J. Schleifer

Experimental Study of hypoglossal-facial anastomosis - Influence of the time of anastomosis on nerve regeneration and neuron degeneration in the central nuelei
Y.S. Chen, N. Yanagihara and S. Murakami

Experimental study on the influence of the time delay between facial nerve lesion and hypoglossal-facial nerve anastomosis on facial nerve regeneration in the rat
O. Guntinas-Lichius, D.N. Angelov, M. Streppel, E. Stennert and W.F. Neiss

The influence of nimodipine on misdirected reinnervation after facial-facial anastomosis in the rat - A quantitative double-label ling study with fluorescent tracers
M. Streppel, D.N. Angelov, W.F. Neiss, O. Guntinas-Lichius and E. Stennert

Study of facial nerve regeneration using collagen tube as a nerve conduit
A.K. Kitahara, Y. Suzuki, Q. Peng, Y. Nishimura, K Suzuki, T Kiyotani, Y. Takimoto, T. Nakamura, Y. Shimizu and K. Endo

Stimulated site on the facial nerve in transcranial magnetic stimulation
H. Kohsyu, M. Aoyagi, H. Inamura, Y. Tada, N. Takahashi and H. Tojima

Diagnostic value of the nerve excitability test in Bell's palsy compared to electroneurography
H. Inamura, H. Kohsyu, Y. Tada, N. Takahashi, M. Aoyagi and H. Tojima

Single fiber electromyography in patients with peripheral facial palsy
H. Tojima, K Takeda, H. Inamura, H. Kohsyu and M. Aoyagi

Reliability of the antidromic facial nerve response stimulated via Stensen's duct
K. Tsuji, H. Nakatani, M. Hamada, T. Takeda and H. Saito

Electrophysiological findings on the pathology of synkinesis
Y. Tada, H. Maeyama, H. Kohsyu, H. Inamura, M. Aoyagi and H. Tojima

Time course of the blink reflex in acute facial paralysis
R. Kayamori, M. Mikami and A. Tamura

Magnetic stimulation results of acute facial nerve palsy in comparison to magnetic resonance imaging
W.F. Thumfart, U. Dapunt, M. Wagner, S. Felber, C. Potoschnig, M. Hamm and F. Aichner

Early prognostic diagnosis of patients with Bell's palsy using transcranial magnetic stimulation
M. Aoyagi, H. Kohsyu, H. Inamura, Y. Tada, N. Takahashi and H. Tojima

Effects of cranial magnetic stimulation during facial nerve diagnostics on auditive reception
C. Pototschnig, M. Walger, I. Schneider, C. Völklein and W.F. Thumfart

Transcranial magnetic stimulation in the examination of subclinical facial nerve lesions
S.R. Wolf S. Dfilsner, W. Schneider, M Berg and M.E. Wigand

Efficacy evaluation by magnetic stimulation of temporary facial nerve palsy facial nerve block treatment for hemifacial spasm
T. Yamakawa, G. Ichikawa, A. Arai and T. Miyazaki

Imaging of the facial

Magnetic resonance imaging in Bell's palsy: yesterday, today and tomorrow
L. Jonsson and M. Engstöm

High resolution T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the facial nerve
S.S. Kollias, A. Valavanis, T. Linder and U. Fisch

Gadolinium-enhanced MRI in relation to facial nerve function in Bell's palsy
M. Engström, S. Abdsaleh, H. AhIström, L. Johansson, E. Stålberg and L. Jonsson

Magnetic resonance imaging in patients with acute Bell's palsy
Y. Fukuda, J.A.F. Barberi, M.S.L. Munhoz and H.K. Yamashita

Gd-DTPA enhancement and vascular permeability in the rabbit cranial nerves
N. Sakihama, T. Tabuchi, Y. Nakao, K. Matumoto and T. Kobayashi

High resolution temporal bone CT findings of facial canal dehiscence in chronic otitis media
B.-M. Yoon, W-S. Lee, S.-I. Paik, J.-P. Bong, K.-J. Sting and J.-L. Rho

Vascular permeability of fluorescent substances in human peripheral nerves
T. Tabuchi, N. Sakihama, Y. Nakao and T. Kobayashi

Bell's Palsy

Etiopathogenesis of Bell's palsy
S. Murakami, N. Hato, N. Honda, N. Yanagihara and M. Mizobuch

Latency and reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 1 in human geniculate ganglia
Y. Furuta, S. Suzuki, S. Fukuda, T. Takasu, and Y. Inuyama

Delayed facial palsy following uneventful middle ear surgery: a herpes simplex virus type 1 reactivation
V. Bonkowsky, B. Kochanowski, J. Strutz, P. Pere, W. Hosemann and W. Arnold

Facial nerve pathology of two patients with herpes simplex encephalitis - A temporal bone study
K. Kaga, S. Karino, N. Takeuchi and H. Sakurai

Should Bell's palsy be revised?
P.S.J.Z. Mulkens and J. Schirm

Compression neuropathy in acute facial paralysis
H. Saito

Epidemiological patterns of Bell's palsy in the Spanish population
M.P. Prim, J.I. De Diego and J. Gavilan

Recurrent Bell's palsy
D.L. Castro

Bilateral and recurrent facial nerve palsy
K Nakamura, J. Horiuchi, S. Murakami, N. Hatoh and N. Yanagihara

Treatment of Bell's palsy with steroids and prostaglandin E l
Y. Abe, H. Watanabe, S. Hakusui, T. Ando, T. Yanagi, N. Mitsuma, K. Yasui and T. Yasuda

Efficacy of facial nerve decompression surgery
S. Miyazaki, K. Ishikawa and K. Togawa

Non-surgical treatment of Bell's palsy: a 50-year historical review (1946-1996)
K.K. Adour

Ramsay Hunt Syndrome

Ramsay Hunt syndrome associated with multiple cranial and/or cervical nerve involvement. Possible routes of dissemination of reactivated latent varicella zoster virus
M. Ikeda and I. Watanabe

Clinical features and prognosis of Ramsay-Hunt syndrome in children
H. Kisaki, N. Hato, T. Sugita, S. Murakami and N. Yanagihara

Diagnosis of zoster sine herpete in patients with acute peripheral facial palsy using polymerase chain reaction
Y. Furuta, S. Fukuda, S. Suzuki, T. Takasu, F. Ohtani and Y. Inuyama

Ramsay-Hunt syndrome: treatment and results
R. Ferreira Bento, R. Louis Voegels, P. Bogar and A. Miniti

Herpes zoster oticus treated with acyclovir and prednisolone - Clinical manifestations and analysis of prognostic factors
J.-Y. Ko, C.K. Hsiao, T.-S. Sheen and M.-M. Hsu

Report of care cases

A case report of facial palsy in acute myeloid leukemia
T. Okomura

Facial nerve involvement in leukemia and malignant lymphoma
Y. Komura, N. Takeuchi, H. Tojima, K. Kaga, S. Okura and Y. Iino

A case of repetitive facial palsy with positive antiganglioside antibody
H. Yamamoto, Y. Nakano, K. Nokura, E. Miyata and S. Kusunoki

Trauma and iatrogenic facial palsy

Facial nerve palsy due to fracture of the temporal bone
K. Gyo, S. Murakami, S. Nishihara and N. Yanagihara

Surgical management of facial nerve paralysis in temporal bone fractures
C.-S. Kim, S.-O. Chang, J.-H. Lee

The results of facial nerve decompression in facial palsy caused by temporal bone fracture
W-S. Lee, H.-K. Lee and B.-M. Yoon

Gunshot wounds to the facial nerve
J.R.G. Testa and Y. Fukuda

Facial palsy following cochlear implant
Y. Fukuda, J.A.F. Barberi and P.L. Mangabeira Albernaz

Iatrogenic facial nerve injuries: avoidance and management
J. Douglas Green Jr, Clough Shelton and Derald E. Brackmann

Errors in facial nerve surgery
N.J. Hamill and J.M. Kartush

Reinnervation of the chorda tympani after middle ear surgery
T. Saito, Y Shibamori, T. Yamada, I. Noda, H. Tsuzuki, C. Sugimoto, T. Yamagishi, H. Igawa and H. Saito

Facial spasm

Usefulness of three-dimensional imaging for operations in patients with hemifacial spasm
Y. Kumon, S. Ohue, S. Ohta, K. Kohno, S. Sakaki, H. Miki and K. Kikuchi

Technical pitfalls that cause unsuccessful neurovascular decompression for hemifacial spasm
S. Yamamoto, H. Ryu, T. Yokoyama, S. Nishizawa, K. Sugiyama, N. Yokota, S. Ohta and K. Uemura

Diagnosis and surgical treatment of hemifacial spasm
C. Berges, B. Fraysse, S. Descombes and M.S. Moreau

Treatment of hemifacial spasm with botulinum toxin type A 15 years' experience
P.P. Devriese

Intractable facial pain treatment: 3D computer-assisted navigation to the gasserian and the geniculate ganglia
W.F. Thumfart, W. Freysinger, A.R. Gunkel, M. Vogele, A. Martin, R.J. Bale, E. Ladner and C. Mayr

Facial nerve disorders following acoustic tumor surgery

Injury of the facial nerve in acoustic tumor surgery prognosis and treatment
J. Kanzaki, Y. Inoue, S. Yoshihara, T. Kunihiro and R. Shiobara

Preservation of facial nerve function in acoustic neuroma surgery by the extended middle cranial fossa approach
R. Shiobara, T. Ohira, T Kawase, T. Kanzaki and S. Toya

Facial nerve palsy caused by acoustic neuroma surgery by the middle cranial fossa approach
K. Ishikawa, N. Yasui, Y. Asano, K. Mineura, H. Sasajima and K. Togawa

Relationship between the position of the facial nerve and long-term facial nerve function following the removal of acoustic neurinomas
Y. Kurokawa, T. Uede and K. Hashi

Early prediction of facial nerve outcome following acoustic neuroma surgery
M. Asai, S. Murakami, H. Aono, N. Hakuba and N. Yanagihara

Recovery of lacrimation, taste and facial palsy after removal of acoustic neuroma by the middle cranial fossa approach
H. Wakisaka, S. Murakami, M. Asai, N. Hato, N. Hakuba and N. Yanagihara

Outcome of facial nerve function, -crocodile tear phenomenon and taste abnormality following acoustic tumor surgery
T. Sasaki, M. Taniguchi, T. Morimoto, T. Sano and T. Kirino

Lacrimation and gustation after removal of unilateral vestibular nerve schwannomas by the enlarged middle cranial fossa approach
M.E. Wigand, R.S. Wolf and B. Eichhorn

Monitoring of the facial nerve

Landmarks and monitoring of the facial nerve in temporal bone surgery
M.E. Wigand, R.S. Wolf, E. Lütjen-Drecoll and J. Wild

Intraoperative monitoring of the facial nerve using laser doppler flowmetry
M. Barbara, A. Cordier and R. Filipo

Evaluation of facial nerve monitoring for surgery of acoustic neurinoma by the enlarged middle cranial fossa approach
R.S. Wolf, B. Eichhorn and B.H. Suchy

Monitoring of the facial nerve in surgery of small acoustic neuromas by the retrosigmoid approach
R. Charachon, J.P. Lavieille and J.P. Chirossel

Management and repair of the facial nerve

A new device for cranial nerve preservation during bipolar coagulation
R. Filipo, A. Cordier and G.A. Bertoli

Management of the facial nerve in parotid surgery
H. Taik Clio

Saline serum injection into the arachnoid sheet to improve dissection of the facial nerve
J.M. Sterkers

Facial nerve grafts: 25 years of follow-up
V. Cotta Barbosa

Surgical techniques for reconstruction of injured facial nerves during skull base surgery
K. Ohata, M. Haque, Y. Honda, H. Ijichi, K. Nagai, M. Morino and A. Hakuba

Restoration of facial nerve function
A. Kukwa, M. Pietniczka and R. Krajewski

Fibrin glue anastomosis of the facial nerve - A report of 97 cases
J. Wang, H. El Garem, D. Bouccara, O. Sterkers and J.M. Sterkers

Hypoglossal-facial nerve anastomosis after acoustic neuroma resection - When should it be performed?
T. Kunihiro, J. Kanzaki, K. Kurashima and R. Uemura

Rehabilitation following hypoglossal-facial nerve interpositional jump graft
C.H.G. Beurskens, J.J. Manni and J.-P.A. Nicolai

New techniques using the hypoglossal nerve for facial rehabilitation
J.J Manni, J-P.A. Nicolai and C.H.G. Beurskens

Dynamic reconstruction after long-:standing facial nerve paralysis - How to overcome the uncertain and long-lasting cross face nerve graft procedure
P.J. Guelinckx and N.K. Sinsel

Facial nerve schwannoma

Facial nerve schwannoma - Five case reports and their management
R. Ferreira Bento, A. Miniti and P. Bogar

Seven cases of intratemporal facial nerve neuroma
T. Harada, J. Kanzaki, Y. Inoue, K. Ogawa and H. Saito

The management of intratemporal facial nerve schwannomas
C-S. Kim

Functional resection of facial nerve neurinomas
M.E. Wigand and R.S. Wolf

The surgical results of facial nerve schwannoma
W.-S. Lee, Y.M. Chun, J. Chi and K.-H. Park

Plastic reanimation surgery

Effectiveness of grafted muscle electromyography in the treatment of facial paralysis - Analysis of spontaneous action potentials
K. Ueda, K Harii, H. Asato and A. Yamada

Autologous and allogenic fascia lata in rehabilitation of the paralyzed face
O. Michel, A. Hess and E. Stennert

Modified temporalis transfer for facial paralysis
G.R. Croxson and M.J. Quinn

Surgical correction of the fronto-orbital region in patients with long-standing facial paralysis
J.-P.A. Nicolai

Surgical treatment of bilateral facial paralysis
J.-P.A. Nicolai

Single-stage transfer of the latissimus dorsi muscle for reanimation of the paralyzed face
H. Asato, K. Harii and K. Ueda

Cross-facial nerve grafting and pectoralis minor transfer in children with unilateral facial palsy
P.M.N. Werker, J-P.A. Nicolai, W. Rijnders and M. Kon

Grading of facial palsy

Use of the House-Brackmann facial nerve grading scale with acute and subacute facial palsy
R. Friedman and J. W House

Clinical application of the FEMA grading system
H.-N. Kim, W-S. Lee, P.-M. Yoon, H.-K. Lee and D.-Y Kim

New dimensions in an objective evaluation method for facial mimetic motions
M. Isono, K. Murata, H. Tanaka, M. Kawamoto, H. Azuma and H. Miyashita

Quantification of the three-dimensional displacement of normal facial movement and following facial nerve paralysis
S.E. Coulson, G.R. Croxson and W. Gilleard

A comparative study of facial mimetic motion in children and adults using a computer-assisted evaluation system
H. Tanaka, K Murata, M. Isono, M. Kawamoto, K. Tanaka and H. Azuma

Assessment of facial nerve function using lip length and snout
M.S. Park, S.H. Lee and Y.B. Kim

Reliability and validity of the Sunnybrook Facial Grading System
B.G. Ross and J. M. Nedzelski

An objective method of scaling facial function
H. Scriba, V. Meier-Gallati and U. Fisch

Objective assessment of normal facial function
H. Scriba, S. Stöckli, D. Veraguth, A. Pollak, H. Felix and T. Linder

Photographic versus electrophysiological documentation of facial nerve function
G.A. Bertoli, R. Filipo, M. Barbara, R. Masciangelo, L. Sabino and A. Cordier

Long-standing facial paralysis

The assessment of physiotherapy rehabilitation outcomes following facial nerve
S.E. Coulson and G.R. Croxson

Rehabilitation of facial paralysis using physiotherapy
S.E. Coulson and G.R. Croxson

Non-surgical rehabilitation of synkinesis following facial nerve injury
H.J. Diels

Treatment of facial synkinesia with botulinum toxin
R.S. Wolf and J.W.H. Krause

Make-up techniques for patients with facial paralysis
K. Ohshiro, T. Abe and J. Kanzaki

Index of authors

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