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The History of Modern Cataract Surgery

edited by: M.L. Kwitko & C.D. Kelman

Price: € 113.00 / US $ 141.25

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Publication details: Book. 1998. viii and 271 pages. Publication date: 1998-07-03. 333 figures, of which 5 in full color, and 16 tables. A4 format. Hardbound.

ISBN: 978-90-6299-154-9 (ISBN 10: 90-6299-154-8; Kugler Publications)

Also available as ebook


Surely the threat of blindness from whatever cause, is an event faced by an ever-growing segment of our aging population. However, when the cause was cataract formation, over the centuries a definite treatment evolved and became available to help those afflicted with this problem, from couching, through crude extra-capsular Graeffe knife extraction, intra-capsular cataract surgery, and planned extra-capsular surgery, to phacoemulsification (ultrasound or laser). Doctors, therefore, recognized very early that there was one blinding condition which could be treated and in which vision could be improved. It is probably this operation that gave rise to ophthalmology as the first surgical subspecialty. In the same way that Alexander Flemming accidentally discovered the mould producing penicilinase, during the Second World War Harold Ridley identified an inert plastic monomer substance that could take the place of the human lens in the human eye, and appeared to cause no secondary side-effects. However the Ridley lens combines with the extracapsular surgery of the time, proved to be an unsatisfactory technique for the cataract patient. It was Cornelius Binkhorst from the Netherlands who proposed a more satisfactory fixation device, first to the iris pupil and then to the posterior capsule. At the same time, Peter Choyce refined the anterior chamber lens to create a stable replacement treatment the crystalline lens. This book, written and edited by two of the world's most eminent eye surgeons, traces the historical events that have brought us to what is now current thought for the present millennium.



It gives me great pleasure to write a foreword for this important textbook in ophthalmology, 'The History of Modern Cataract Surgery', by my two dear friends, Dr. Marvin Kwitko and Dr. Charles Kelman, both of whom have made lasting contributions to their colleagues as well as to ophthalmology as a whole. Marvin L. Kwitko is one of Canada's most distinguished ophthalmic writers and surgeons. He began the first successful lens implant series following cataract surgery in Canada in 1967. Later, he performed the first refractive surgery procedure (radial keratotomy) in Canada in 1979. He is an associate professor of ophthalmology at McGill University in Montreal, Chief of Ophthalmology at St. Mary's Hospital, and was past president and founder of the Canadian Implant and Refractive Surgery Society in 1975. While president, he organized twenty national conferences, culminating in the 1994 International Congress on Cataract and Refractive Surgery, which drew the largest attendance of any such meeting ever held in Canada. Membership of the International - Intraocular Implant Club (founded in 1966) is by invitation only, and it was my pleasure to invite Marvin to join us soon after its foundation. As Executive Secretary of the International Society of Geographic Ophthalmology, Marvin organized scientific meetings in Yellowknife, Cadiz, Tunis, Sardinia and Rio de Janeiro. In 1975, he help to cofound the American Society of Cataract and Refractivc Surgery. He is a recipient of tbc University of Western Ontario Honour Award, 1956, the Senior Honor Award of the American Academy of Ophthalmology, 1989, La Médaille d'Honneur, L'Association Francaise des Implants Intraoculaires, 1976, the Prof. Ignacio Barraquer Award (Spain), 1970, and tbc Siva Reddy Medal (India), 1980. He was chairman of tbc Advisory Committee on the Excimer Laser for Health and Welfare Canada, formulating the protocol for the use of the laser in Canada which was finally approved in 1995. Dr. Kwitko has published five medical text books, including Glaucoma in Infants and Children; Pseudophakia: Current Trends and Concepts; Surgery of the Infant Eye; and Geriatric Ophthalmology and Eyes: General Principles; as well as over 100 scientific articles, making him one of the world's most prolific medical writers. His textbook 'Pseudophakia: Current Trends and Concepts', published in 1980, was one of the first format textbooks on the technology of intraocular lens implantation in the cataract patient. He is on the editorial board of ten ophthalmology journals. His lens implant course beginning in 1975 offered the opportunity for over 400 ophthalmic surgeons from home and abroad to learn the technique and for him to share his knowledge with his colleagues. Dr. Kwitko is presently serving as North American Federation Secretary of the International College of Surgeons. He is on the Board of Directors of the National Association for Visually Handicapped. Recently, in recognition of his services, Dr. Kwitko was promoted to Commander of the. Order of St. John of Jerusalem, a knightly order headed by Queen Elizabeth, by Romeo LeBlanc, the Governor General of Canada. Dr. Charles D. Kelman's contributions are almost mind-staggering. In 1962, he devised the cryoprobe, a freezing instrument for the extraction of cataracts within their capsules. This became the most widely used method for cataract removal in the world. Kelman phacoemulsification (KPE), introduced in 1967, became the impetus for today's outpatient cataract surgery. Over a million operations of this type have been performed worldwide. In 1975, Dr. Kelman began designing lens implants for use in conjunction with cataract surgery, some of which became the most popular ever to be used. At present, Charles Kelman is working on several new projects, including artificial blood vessels, artificial corneas, and a magnetic cataract extraction procedure which will retain the patient's normal ability to focus on near and distant objects. Clinical Professor of Ophthalmology at New York Medical College, Dr. Kelman holds the position of Attending Surgeon at the New York Eye and Ear Infirmary and Manhattan Eye, Ear and Throat Hospital. He is Consultant Surgeon at many hospitals throughout the world. In 1979, Dr. Kelman won the American Academy of Ophthalmology Achievement Award. He was the first recipient of the Outstanding Achievement Award for excellence in cataract surgery from the American Society of Contemporary Ophthalmology. In 1985, he received the First Innovator's Award in Ophthalmology given by the American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery. In 1989, he received the Binkhorst medal from the American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery. In 1990, he was awarded the Ridley Medal from the International Congress of Ophthalmology. In 1991, Dr. Kelman returned to Wills Eye Hospital, where he was honored as the Arthur J. Bedell Memorial Lecturer. Later that year, the American Academy of Ophthalmology awarded him their Special Recognition Award. In 1992, Dr. Kelman received the Distinguished Service Award from Tufts University and was awarded the 'Inventor of the Year Award' from The New York Patient, Trademark and Copyright Law Association for his development of the Kelman phacoemulsification procedure. In June 1992, he was awarded the prestigious National Medal of Technology by President Bush. In July 1994, at the International Congress on Cataract and Refractive Surgery in Montreal, Canada, Dr. Kelman was named 'Ophthalmologist of the Century' for his pioneering work in phacoemulsification. In April 1995, he was elected President of the American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgeons. He has also written hundreds of articles, papers and scientific books on his discoveries. He has even found time to learn to pilot his own helicopter, and avidly follows his hobbies of golf, music and performing. He continues to teach his surgical techniques, while devoting his spare time to several new projects, including a musical 'The Right Pair of Shoes', and an album that was released by Columbia Records.

D.P. Choyce, BSc, MS, FRCS, FRCOphth
Past Secretary/Treasurer & President of the
International Intraocular Implant Club

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

D.P. Choyce 

Preface - History of cataract surgery
N.S. Jaffe 

The four eras in the evolution of cataract surgery
R.S. Jampel 

Intraocular lens implantation - The beginnings
M.L. Kwitko 

Cataract surgery (1920-1960)
J.J. Alpar

Pseudophakia: Intracapsular or extracapsular technique?
C.D. Binkhorst

History of the operating microscope
C. Edelstein and M.L. Kwitko 

Anterior chamber intraocular implants and intracapsular cataract surgery
M.L. Kwitko and R. Azar 

Manual extracapsular surgery
M.L. Kwitko and W. Simcoe 

Cryocataract surgery
Ch.D. Kelman 

The 'Sputnik' intraocular lens
S.N. Fyodorov 

D. Miller, R. Stegmann and A.A. Wallerstein 

History of phacoemulsification
Ch.D. Kelman 

Posterior chamber lens implantation
M.L. Kwitko 

The genesis of the posterior chamber lens-implant
S.P. Shearing 

Phacosection: The evolution of a manual small incision-no-stitch-phacofragmentation cataract extraction technique
P. Kansas 

Infantile cataract surgery - Evolution of modem techniques
A.I. Fink and A. Bunke 

The early use of lens implants in children
D.A. Hiles 

Secondery implantation
A.G. Parelman 

History of the picosecoAd YAG laser
D.S. Aron-Rosa

The history of IOL power calculation in North America
K.J. Hoffer

Intraocular lenses in visual rehabilitation of patients with macular disease
J. Koziol and G.A. Peyman 

Intraocular lens complications
H. Hirschman 

Teaching courses - 1967-1983
M.L. Kwitko 

An Atlas of Ophthalmic Surgery
C. Berens and J.H. King 

Index of authors

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