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Progress in Retinopathy of Prematurity

edited by: A. Reibaldi & M. Di Pietro & A. Scuderi & E. Malerba

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Publication details: Book. 1997. xii and 234 pages. Publication date: 1997. 31 figures of which 3 in full color, and 70 tables. Paperbound.

ISBN: 978-90-6299-146-4 (ISBN 10: 90-6299-146-7; Kugler Publications)



Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is an important current topic due to the increased survival, in these last twenty years, of low birthweight and gestational age prematures. This disease needs an early diagnosis and treatment in order to assure a good visual prognosis that unfortunately cannot be obtained in the most aggressive forms of ROP.
First of all, epidemiology is examined in order to point out the relationship between the incidence of the disease and the maternal and neonatal risk factors in different countries. Moreover, the variations during these 'last ten years of screening strategies have contributed to the variation of prevalence of ROP.
Until now, the pathogenesis of ROP is not completely understood; it can be studied by persons with a thorough knowledge of risk factors and vasculogenic factors.
The diagnosis of ROP is generally easy in prematures, but its cicatricial evolution must be carefully monitored, especially in cases of vitreo-retinal adherences that must be examined in relation to the increase of the eye's diameter. The differential diagnosis with some pathologies that simulate cicatricial ROP can be difficult.
Experimental studies represent the future of ROP knowledge on molecular mechanisms and animal models for ROP; in particular the role of endothelin-1 and the mechanisms of angiogenesis in ischemic retinal disorders are pointed out.
The therapeutical aspects of this disease are pointed out by the various international experiences with the diode laser and cryotherapy in ROP 3+; the main problems regarding the therapeutical trials are the long-term results, the complications during laser- or cryo-treatment, and the treatment of 'zone I ROP'.
ROP stage 4 and 5 imply different problems with respect to ROP stage 3, and the surgical approaches, such as scleral buckling, pars-plicata vitrectomy, lens sparing vitrectomy, aphakic vitrectomy and open-sky vitrectomy, as well as the role of anesthesiology, are evaluated and discussed by the speakers.
The next subjects are the visual refractive outcome, such as myopia problems, after cryo-, laser- and unilateral treatment as also the incidence and treatment of strabismus and amblyopia in prematurely born babies.
At the end of this Meeting, the problems regarding rehabilitation of low-vision babies with particular reference to pre-school and school-age psychological impact and the use of low vision aids are discussed.
The aim of this Meeting is to increase the interest of neonatologists and ophthalmologists in this topic, in order to spread the idea that this disease needs an interdisciplinary approach.

Alfredo Reibaldi

Table of Contents

Table of Contents



Epidemiological data from the region of Bern about the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity over a period of 20 years
F. Koerner and E. Bossi

Risk factors for retinopathy of prematurity: a cohort study in high-risk neonates
V. Console and G. Chirico

A 3.5 year ophthalmological follow-up of preterm infants with a birth weight £1500 grams, with emphasis on refractive development
G. Holinström, M. El Azazi and U. Kugelberg

Retinopathy of prematurity at an urban center: association with Candida sepsis
R.D. Higgins, M. Mittal and R. Dhanireddy

A ten-year follow-up of retinopathy of prematurity patients
B. Kovacs

Should retinopathy of prematurity screening strategies discriminate between high risk and low risk prematures?
N.E. Schalij-Delfos and B.P Cats

Premature birth and retinopathy of prematurity
J.E. Kennedy, D.A. Todd and Elizabeth John

Threshold retinopathy of prematurity in Lithuania: tendencies during three years
R. Bagdoniene and R. Sirtautiene

Compliance with the guidelines of screening for retinopathy of prematurity in the northern region of England: a multicenter retrospective study
N.G. Ziakas, M.P. Clarke, D.G. Cottrell and D.WA. Millligan

Epidemiological data from the Annunziata Hospital in Naples on the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity over a period of three years
A. Menna


Threshold retinopathy of prematurity and risk factors
D. Spinelli, S. Accetta, S. Gambaro, V. Oliva, A. Marini, F. Mosca, F. Pugni and L. Ceriotti

The retinopathy of prematurity score: evaluation of ROP risk factors
J.E. Kennedy, D.A. Todd, E. John and J. Kumutha

Problems of the pathogenesis of retinopathy of prematurity
M.E. Prost

Correlation of general dystrophic abnormalities with the prevalence of retinopathy of prematurity
F. Koerner and E. Bossi

Conditions that simulate retinopathy of prematurity
W. Tasman

Thirteen-year experience with the International Classification of Retinopathy of Prematurity
B.P. Cats, N.E. Schalij-Delfos and K.E.W.P Tan

New developments in neonatology - New developments in retinopathy of prematurity
J. Termote, N.E. Schalij-Delfos, H.A.A. Brouwers and B.P. Cats

Portable ocular laser Doppler velocimeter and flowmeter
E. Logean, M.H. Geiser B.L. Fetrig and C.E. Riva

Perinatal risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity development
E.I. Saidasheva, M.T. Aznabayev and E.N. Akhmadeyeva

Retinopathy of prematurity in triplets
R. Sirtautiene, R. Bagdoniene, and A. Nasliuniene

Incidence of retinopathy of prematurity and prophylaxis of hyaline membrane disease by corticosteroids
O. Ganguzza, E. Gonzales and U. Dimita

The protective role of bilirubin in premature infants with retinopathy of prematurity
J Ciechan


Endothelin-1 and hyperoxic injury to endothelial cells
R.D. Higgins

Oxygen-induced retinopathy in the mouse
R.D. Higgins, T. Rotschild and B. Nandgaonkar


Diode laser photocoagulation for retinopathy of prematurity
W. Tasman

Long-term results of diode laser treatment for threshold retinopathy of prematurity
A. Reibaldi, A. Scuderi, M. Di Pietro and E. Malerba

Zone I retinopathy of prematurity: natural course, prognosis, and treatment
E.A. Palmer

Results of cryotherapy for retinopathy of prematurity: ten years' experience
I. Szabo

Anesthesia management of infants undergoing surgical treatment for retinopathy of prematurity
B. Panascia, R. Rapisarda, G. Castiglione and E. Panascia

Surgical treatment of retinal detachment in active stage 4 and 5 retinopathy of prematurity
M.E. Prost

Retinopathy of prematurity and drugs: our experience
A. Reibaldi, A. Scuderi and M. Di Pietro

Our experience in the treatment of the end stages of retinopathy of prematurity
P. Vadalà, P. Capozzi, M. Fortunato, R. Maggi, A. Romanzo and F. Vadaldà

The natural course and the results of treatment of acute retinopathy of prematurity in Moscow
L.A. Katargina, V.A. Khvatova, L.V. Kogoleva and G.M. Dementjeva

Early and late onset of retinal detachment in retinopathy of prematurity
S. Résán, G. Salacz and R. Vámos


Strabismus and amblyopia: overview and an urban U.S. perspective
M.T. Miller and L. Levine

Results of evaluating, treating and following up of patients with retinopathy of prematurity during the last 15 years
A. Horvath

Late findings in retinopathy of prematurity
W. Tasman

Long-term visual outcome of premature eyes with and without retinopathy of prematurity
N.E. Schalij-Delfos and B.P. Cats

Refractive outcome following unilateral retinopexy in infants with asymmetric retinopathy of prematurity
W.A. Segal, Wayne E. Solley, Paul Sternberg, Jr and Antonio Capone, Jr

The first steps in the detection and treatment of retinopathy of prematurity in Croatia
T. Csik and M. Stanojevic

Retinopathy of prematurity screening and treatment: ten years' experience in, a provincial teaching hospital
D. Cottrell

Results of surgical treatment of retinopathy of prematurity
T. Pregun, K. Sényi, K. Knézy and I. Süveges

Is laser coagulation superior to cryopexy in the management of retinopathy prematurity
G. Salacz, S. Récsán and R.Vámos

Long-term follow-up in very preterm infants: correlation between cerebral ultrasound and ophthalmic outcome
R. Caputo, G. Rapisardi, L. Campa, E. Scarano, S. Frosini and R. Frosini

Ocular outcomes in very low birthweight premature infants: retrospective studies of seven years
P.E. Bianchi, R. Guagliano, B. Marenzi, W. Misefari, G. Chirico and F. Trimarchi


The low-birthweight child: what problems do they have in the presche school-age years?
M.T. Miller and L. Levine

Late visual reduction in subjects with retinopathy of prematurity: R0P demands lifelong ophthalmic awareness
H.C. Fledelius

What have we learned about retinopathy of prematurity during the past ten years?
E.A. Palmer

Early rehabilitation in retinopathy of prematurity children (0-4 years)
A. Piccioni, Josée Lanners and E. Goergen

Index of authors

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